Air Products retrofitted each of its two steam methane reformers (SMRs), located within an existing refinery at Port Arthur, Texas, to separate CO2 from the process gas stream. Carbon dioxide capture capacity is at around 1 Mtpa when both plants are fully operational. The captured CO2 is transported to oil fields in Texas for enhanced oil recovery. More than 3 million tonnes of CO2 has been captured since the facilities became operational in 2013.
The Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP) is a proposed coal gasification-based chemicals production facility with carbon capture. TCEP is expected to capture approximately 1.5-2 Mtpa CO2 by the turn of the decade. The captured CO2 stream would be used in part in ammonia/urea production, with the majority entering the Kinder Morgan pipeline system for enhanced oil recovery.
The Koch Nitrogen Company facility in Enid, Oklahoma produces nitrogen fertilisers which result in a high purity, high concentration CO2 off-gas. The CO2 off-gas is processed at compression, cooling and dehydration facilities owned by Chaparral Energy and Merit Energy. The processed CO2 of up to around 0.7 Mtpa is transported to depleted oil fields in southern Oklahoma for enhanced oil recovery.
Quest, located in Alberta, Canada, retrofitted CO2 capture facilities to three steam methane reformers (SMRs) at the existing Scotford Upgrader. Launched in November 2015, Quest has the capacity to capture approximately 1 Mtpa of CO2. The captured CO2 is transported via pipeline to the storage site for dedicated geological storage. In July 2017, Quest announced it had captured and stored two million tonnes of CO2.
The GreenGen program proposed the development of a large-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) CCS demonstration project in Tianjin, near Beijing, China. The third (and last) phase of the program would involve the construction and operation of a 400 MW IGCC power plant with associated carbon capture facilities capable of capturing up to 2 Mtpa of CO2. Storage locations and transportation methods are presently under evaluation. Planned operation is in the 2020s.
The Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers fertiliser plant in Coffeyville, Kansas, has been retrofitted with CO2 compression and dehydration facilities and since 2013 has been delivering CO2 to the North Burbank Oil Unit in Osage County, Oklahoma, for enhanced oil recovery. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of the compression facilities is around 1 Mtpa.
Gorgon CO2 Injection is part of the wider Gorgon gas development project offshore Western Australia. Reservoir CO2 would be separated and compressed at facilities located on Barrow Island and then piped a short distance to CO2 injection wells on the Island where the CO2 would be injected deep in the subsurface. The facilities are expected to be operational in 2018. When fully operational, CO2 capture capacity is at 3.4 – 4.0 Mtpa.
The Snøhvit CO2 Storage facilities form part of the development of gas fields in the Barents Sea, offshore Norway. The CO2 is captured at an LNG facility on the island of Melkøya, northern Norway, where the offshore sourced gas stream is processed. The facility is designed to capture 0.7 Mtpa of CO2. The captured CO2 is transported via pipeline back to the Snøhvit field offshore where it is injected into an offshore storage reservoir; more than 4 million tonnes of CO2 has been stored to date since 2008.
The Sleipner CO2 Storage facility was the first in the world to inject CO2 into a dedicated geological storage setting. The Sleipner facility, located offshore Norway, has captured CO2 as part of the Sleipner area gas development since 1996. The captured CO2 is directly injected into an offshore sandstone reservoir. Approximately 0.85 million tonnes of CO2 is injected per annum and over 17 million tonnes has been injected since inception to date.
The Great Plains Synfuels plant, located in North Dakota, produces high purity CO2 as part of its coal gasification process. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of the plant is approximately 3 Mtpa. The captured CO2 is transported via pipeline to the Weyburn Oil Unit and the Midale Oil Unit in Saskatchewan, Canada, for use in enhanced oil recovery. Around 35 million tonnes of CO2 has been captured and transported to date.